"To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we submit the vindication of the Cause for which we fought; to your strength will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier's good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles he loved and which made him glorious and which you also cherish. Remember it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is presented to future generations".
Part 1 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1.What were some similarities between the American Revolutionary War and the War for Southern Independence?
2. Where the Articles of Confederation a success for failure?
3. What why did a Constitutional Convention called?
4. Explain the different functions and results of the Continental Congresses.
5. Pick one fact that you learned from Part I and explain its significance in your understanding of American history.
Part 2 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. Explain significant differences in the culture, history, values and orientation of the Northern states populations compared to the Southern states populations prior to 1860.
2. If you were a Southern states resident in the 1850's how would the shift of population, addition of states and the taking of the census be of concern to you?
3. Compare and contrast the Northern view and the Southern view of Southern classes before 1860.
4. What is your opinion of the South's reaction to the economic panic and recession of 1857 and do you agree or disagree with their position?
5. How do you interpret the 10th Amendment of the Bill of Rights as it relates to Federal vs States rights?
6. Do you agree with or dispute John C. Calhoun's stance on States Rights?
7. Why did the Southerners that wished to withdraw from the Union, consider this a Second American Revolution?
Part 3 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. How would books like "Types of Mankind" and newspaper commentators such as Horace Greeley have influence an average citizen in their thinking about ethnic, racial and societal in the 1850's?
2. Why was the indentured servant system considered so important to the formation of the colonies?
3. What factors caused African slave trade to begin in America?
4. If most Northern slave owners were allowed to recoup their investment by selling slaves south, what plan could have been implement to allow the Southern slave owners the same opportunity?
5. Explain the most interesting fact you discovered about the issue of slavery by completing this unit.
6. Compare and contrast the North's use of immigrant and child labor and their "company store and housing policies" vs the institution of slavery in the South.
7. Compare and contrast the believes and actions of Generals Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant regarding slaves, slavery, and the black man.
8. Why would common people of the North be concerned with the abolitionist slave power conspiracy?
9. How valid was the use of Uncle Tom's Cabin as an instrument of abolition?
10. How did Hinton Rowan Helper's book incite further tensions in the South?
11. What was the significance of the John Brown raid on Harper's Ferry?
12. Knowing what we do today, what would have been a solution to elimination of slavery without warfare or extreme economic hardship?
13. It has been documented that about 7% of Southerners owned slaves. How would some of the abolitionist charges, the slave rebellions, and the anti-Southern books published in the era effected you as a non slave holder? What would your reaction to the north be?
Part 4 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. Describe the motivation of the New England states and the Federalists as it pertained to the Hartford Convention and potential secession in the early 1800's.
2. Give justification for or against the Tariffs of Abominations either from the Northern or Southern perspective.
3. If you were a Southern farmer or business man, what would your reactions have been to the Nullification actions proposed by Calhoun?
4. What sectional concerns regarding westward expansion continued to be raised by both the North and the South from the Missouri Compromise through the Compromise of 1850?
5. Why would the South wish to have a popular sovereignty approach to new territories and states, and the North push for predetermined federal legislation for the new states?
6. Why was the term "Bloody Kansas" coined and what circumstances caused the Kansas-Nebraska Act to aggravate the turmoil?
7. Why would most Southern citizens understand and support Preston Brooks response to Charles Sumner, and why would most Northern citizens and the Northern Press condemn Brooks?
8. What motives did the Republican members of the "Committee of Thirteen" have to ignore popular support of the Crittenden Comprise and to vote to defeat the plan?
9. What were the problems faced by the National Peace Conference of 1861?
10. Explain the motives behind Lincoln and the Congress with regards to the proposed 13th Amendment. What implications does that have regarding defining the cause of the war to come?
11. When looking over the proposed 13th Amendment we see Lincoln more concerned about holding the union together and maintain revenue from Southern states, compared to the concerns of black slaves. Why do you think America has been lead to believe that Lincoln was the "Great Emancipator" in the face of campaign statements regarding the Negro and slavery?
Part 5 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. Why was the election of Abraham Lincoln such a defining moment for Southern politicians?
2. What were some of the fears and concerns faced by the average Southerner regarding the election of Lincoln as President?
3. What would your feelings be if a man, who was not even on your states ballot was elected President of the United States in 1860?
4. How did the Republican, Northern Democrats, Southern Independent Democrats and Constitutional Union parties differ in platforms?
5. Compare and contrast the image each of the candidates, Lincoln, Breckenridge, Stevens, and Bell portrayed to the Southern voter.
6. How did the election of 1860 further sectionalize America?
7. How did the South view the Morrill Tariff Act?
8. Compare and contrast the legislation and treatment towards first the South, then after secession, the West by the Federal government.
9. If you were living in the Western Territories, how would the tariffs of 1862 and beyond be seen as a burden?
10. Why was Lincoln so willing to use the tariffs as a fundraising measures for federal projects and expenditures? Did all regions pay equally and did all regions benefit equitably?
Part 6 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. Why would the Southerners consider the Star of the West mission a breach of peace, a breach of trust and an act of war?
2. Why did the Star of the West incident seem to solidify the formation of the Confederate States of America?
3. Describe what you feel were the thoughts of the men that drafted either the South Carolina or Georgia Ordinances of Session.
4. Why was Robert Barnwell Rhett considered the "Father of Secession"?
5. Why do you feel the Southern leaders nearly adopted the US Constitution word for word and policy for policy?
6. If the CSA and USA constitutions were so similar, why do you feel that a split from the original union was seen as necessary by the Southern leaders?
7. What do you feel was the greatest attributes that President Jefferson Davis brought to the CSA, and what were some of his greatest obstacles to overcome?
8. Why do you feel there was a call for so many men to serve in the cabinet, particular in the War Department?
9. Pick three cabinet members and enumerate skills they brought to the office, or major contributions they made to the Confederate Government.
10. Why do you think the Lincoln assignation plot receives so much notoriety in history, while the plot to assassinate President Davis and members of his cabinet is so obscure?
Part 7 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. What were some of the major concerns that most Southerners held with regards to the inauguration of Lincoln?
2. What were the major concerns of the Northern states, with regard to Southern State secession?
3. Why did the South Carolinians view the attempt to resupply Fort Sumter as a provocation for war?
4. Why did the Confederates feel justified to fire on Fort Sumter?
5. How did Lincoln use the attack on Fort Sumter to incite the North against the Confederate States?
6. What legal concerns did Lincoln's proclamations for "75000 volunteers" and "blockade of Southern ports" pose?
7. Why did the crowds in Baltimore responded against Federal troops being sent through Maryland?
8. What reasons did the United States Military Academy have for changing their long standing oath?
9. Why is it unfair to label cadets and graduates of West Point as traitors, considering the educational background given to them at the USMA?
10. Why did the actions of the Lincoln government in April 1861 cause more states to withdraw from the Union?
11. Why did the South raised an Army and Navy in 1861?
Part 8 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. What is the difference between a Confederate National Flag and a Battle Flag?
2. What problems arose, causing the need for a more uniform Battle Flag to be adapted in the Army of Northern Virginia?
3. Why were there so many variations within the various battle flags?
4. Why do so many Confederate Flags use some sort of Christian symbolism to represent them?
5. Why were state flag variations so popular in the early war?
6. Explain the significant symbolism of the Great Seal of the Confederacy.
7. Often in error, Confederate Battle flags are referred to as "The Stars and Bars", therefore explain, compare and contrast the correct flag type "Stars and Bars" and the correct flag type know as the "Southern Cross".
8. What were some of the common alternations that a regiment or company may have made to their Battle Flag?
9. Why do so many special interests groups seem to want to eradicate Confederate symbols including the battle flag?
10. Take a common argument against the use of Confederate symbols, analyze the facts, and draw your own conclusion to their use.
Part 9 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. Why did the Indian Nations choose the Confederacy over the Union?
2. Why is the role of the Indian Nations rarely found in textbooks on American History?
3. What were the legal issues that Great Brittan and the Confederate States held against the USA regarding the Trent Incident?
4. Explain the stronger motivation, international law and opinion or war with a second nation behind Lincoln's handling of the Trent Affair.
5. Why were the boarder states suspicious of Lincoln's 1862 proposal for compensated emancipation?
6. Why was no offer of compensated emancipation offered prior to any state from 1850-1860 as the crisis in the Union was building?
7. What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation since in effect freed no slaves?
8. Why did Lincoln and the Republicans switch the purported reason for fighting the war from "preservation of the Union" to "fighting to free slaves"?
9. If you were a senator in the late 1850's, what kind of legislation do you feel could have averted the war of 1861-65 and kept the nation in tact?
10. How do the New York draft riots of 1863 reflect the mood and sentiment of the Northern people about the war and towards the Lincoln administration?
11. What motivations might a black Southern slave or free, have for fighting for the Confederacy?
12. Why do we so seldom hear of the black soldiers contribution to the Confederate States?
13. How did the need to keep neutral ports in Mexico open compare to the advantage of having Mexican providences secede to join the Confederate States?
1. Why did the the Union prisoners held by Confederates have to have food rations cut in 1864-65?
2. Why was it nearly impossible for Confederates to get medicine to treat Union prisoners?
3. Why was it said that the Confederate soldier and the Union prisoner had some of the same problems surviving the war 1864-65?
4. How did Union policies contribute to the suffering of Union prisoners held by the Confederacy?
5. What were Lincoln and Grants concern about continuing the exchange system after 1863?
6. Why is Andersonville seen so prominently in history text, when overall Confederate prisoner conditions and casualties were worse?
7. What reasons did the Union government list for lack of food, shelter, clothing or medicine provided for their Confederate held prisoners?
8. In general, how did the Northern guards, prison camp administrators, government officials and even some doctors regard the Confederate prisoner and what examples could you point out that brings you to this conclusion?
9. What does the term the Immortal 600 refer to?
10. How is the use of human shields considered a breach of military justice and of human prisoner treatment?
11. What regard for prisoners would a commanding General, such as Sherman hold, if they ordered prisoners to be used as human shields?
12. President Jefferson Davis offered many times to send sick and injured Union prisoners home if the Union would not send food, medicine or doctors South. Why did the USA government refuse to accept these offers?
1. What was U.S. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney views regarding Lincoln's suspension of the writ of habeas corpus?
2. What was Lincolns plan to deal with the Supreme Court challenge, and how could it have been resolved with the constitution?
3. Who were the Copperheads and what were their political views of the War?
4. What did Union officials do to Clement Vallandigham in 1863 and why did they take such action?
5. Compare and contract the reaction of Lincoln and that of his Military leaders with regards to the actions of James Lane in Missouri.
6. Why were the Jayhawkers and Red legs allowed such free reign in Kansas?
7. How was the treatment of Southern Blacks forced to enlist and labor for the Union Army contradictory to the history often written about this era?
8. What actions of Union General Benjamin Butler caused him to be one of the most despised men of the Yankee occupation?
9. Why did the Union army refuse to recognize the partisan rangers as Confederate forces?
10. Towards what effect were the General Orders #10 and #11 issued in Missouri?
Part 12 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. How did the people of Palmyra see Andrew Allsman?
2. Should McNeil and Strachan earned promotions or court-martials for their actions in Palmyra?
3. What was the impression given of the firing squad execution in Palmyra when 100 spectators were allowed to be present?
4. What was Sam Davis' crime and did it justify hanging?
5. What evidence was presented to indicate that Sam Davis was not a spy?
6. Why was Ivan Turchin known as "The Robbing Colonel"?
7. Why did the citizens of Athens Alabama not offer aid to the Union solider trapped on the burning train?
8. What acts of war did Turchin presume that the citizens of Athens Alabama had presented, that would justify the raid on their town?
9. Based on official reports and orders did Turchin deserve court-martial and dismissal from the Union Army?
10. What motivation would Lincoln have to reinstate Turchin and promote him to general, when the court found him guilty on numerous charges?
Part 13 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. What were the reasons Sherman targeted the mills in Roswell and New Manchester for destruction?
2. What motivations did Sherman have for the deportation of the factory workers from Roswell and New Manchester?
3. Place yourself back to 1864, what socially unacceptable actions were taken by the Yankee soldiers upon the women of Roswell and New Manchester?
4. Why did the Union military and government fail to protect the factory workers and failed to take action against Sherman for the kidnapping and relocation?
5. What examples can one cite that define Sherman's mission in his march to the sea?
6. Describe Sherman's treatment of the non-combatant civilians his troops encountered from Atlanta to Savannah.
7. Explain the term "Sherman's Bummers" and define their mission in Georgia.
8. Place yourself back to 1864, what socially unacceptable actions were taken by the Yankee soldiers upon the women, children and non-combatants who were in the path of Sherman's army?
9. Based on standards of 1864, how should have commodities been obtained by Sherman's armies, and how did that compare with the methods the Yankees chose to use?
10. Why did Sherman's troops burn so many homes, barns and other buildings?
11. Were the Yankee troops justified in trespassing on private property stealing items such as silverware and other family heirlooms, or in destroying personal property not associated with the war?
Who is ultimately responsible for the destruction caused to the citizens
in the march to the sea and why do you place the responsibility there?
13. What is your impression of the letter published from the Yankee Lieutenant from a Camp Near Camden, S.C., the response of Col Stone, and the final analysis by the Southern Historical Society?
14. Give substantiation to the statement "Sherman's tactics were not military actions, but war crimes against the Southern people."
15. Give substantiation to the statement "Sherman's war waged on the citizens of Georgia have done more to divide this country right up to the present time, than any previous acts against the South. "
Part 14 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. What was the purpose of Reconstruction?
2. If the US Government position was that the Southern states were never considered legally out of the Union, how was Reconstruction against the South justified?
3. What hardships did Reconstruction pose to the Southern people?
4. What violations of the Constitution could be seen with implementation of Reconstruction?
5. Some Southerners chose to leave the South, often heading west to avoid the effects of Reconstruction. Describe the aspects and ramifications of this decision.
6. Who were the Confederados?
7. What distortion (lies) did Northern Press and some Yankee Officers publicize regarding the capture of Jefferson Davis?
8. Which particular facts regarding the capture of Jefferson Davis were refuted by eye witnesses?
9. What charges were brought against Jefferson Davis?
10. What conditions did Jefferson Davis endure while imprisoned for two year?
11. Did Jefferson Davis ever receive a conviction or trial for any of the charges?
12. Why did the US Government use the Wirz trail as their keystone event to persecution of Southern officers and leaders?
13. Why did US Government officials offer Wirz a pardon and why did he refuse?
Part 15 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. Give a brief explanation of why General Robert Edward Lee is considered a Southern Hero and a role model for young people even today.
2. Give a brief explanation of why General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson is still today considered an honorable man and a Southern Hero.
3. Give a brief explanation of why President Jefferson Davis was a man of honor and is considered a Southern Hero.
4. Why would you consider your Southern ancestors who lived in the 1860-80's heroes?
5. What characteristics of the three men profiled in this unit do you most admire and why?
6. What lessons can people of today learn from the character of these three men?
7. Why is it that so few history books give much information on Southern heroes and patriots?
8. Give a short narrative of any ancestor that was a soldier in the Confederate Army.
9. Give a short family history of ancestors that were alive at the time of the war or during reconstruction.
10. Give a brief explanation of any other Southerner from the War Between the States era that you feel deserves remembrance today.
Part 16 Questions-In short essay format support an opinion for these questions:
1. Why do you think the Southern-Confederate solider fought?
2. What is the function of the Sons of Confederate Veterans in this day and age?
3. Is the SCV and Southern history about heritage or hate?
4. Why is the SCV trying to bring out lost, hidden or suppressed facts regarding the war?
5. What has happened to the memory of the Confederate solider today?
6. What does the Confederate Battle Flag symbolize to you?
7. Should the Confederate soldier be remembered or should he be forgotten and we move on?
8. What was the biggest myth that was debunked for you in this course about Southern and Confederate history?
SUGGESTED READINGS Pick at least one of the books from the recommended reading list. Read it and give a book report. The report should include the major highlights of the book, your opinion of the authors work. List any information that you learned by reading the book. List any information found in the book that you call into question. The report should be at least 2 pages typed, double spaced, 12 point font with 1" margins.
IMPORTANT DATES IN CONFEDERATE HISTORY Pick one event found on the Important Dates page. Write a two page paper, typed, double spaced, 12 point font with 1" margins discussing the significance of this date in regards to Confederate History
FINAL EXAM: A final essay exam will be required to earn credit and a certificate of completion. Contact the instructor when ready to complete the final exam.